Crops of Chakwal

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Crops of Chakwal

Crops of Chakwal are Wheat, Groundnuts, Oil seeds,Grams Lentils- Masoor Mash Maize, Millets Jawar, Vegetables

Chakwal’s main occupation is farming. Except for a few landowners in Talagang subdivision, holdings are very small. Although traditional farming methods are being used, new techniques are being developed by the Barani Agricultural Institute in Thoa Bahadur. Farmers have started to use pesticides and fertilizer; capital-intensive, but time-saving inputs such as tractors and harvesters are used since their introduction.

The district covers 1652443 acres and 786212 acres. These are the principal crops in the district:

Wheat, Groundnuts, Oil seeds,Grams Lentils- Masoor Mash Maize, Millets Jawar, Vegetables


Crops of Chakwal

Farmers have also planted fruit orchards, particularly citrus, but in small areas due to water scarcity. There are small-sized Loquat orchards in Kallar Kahar, Choa Saidan Shah.

The Department of Agriculture, Government of the Punjab oversees agricultural activities in the district. It is led by the Deputy Director of Agriculture Extension, who is supported by two Extra Assistant Directors and 13 Agriculture Officers. There are also 9 Agriculture Inspectors.

* Agri-staff* Publicity of Technology
* Topography* Weather and Climate
* Types of soil* Forestry
* Rain Falls* Livestock
* Source of irrigation* Flora and fauna

Pakistan covers an area of approximately 803,940 square km. Around 48 million hectares (or 60 percent) are often unusable for agriculture or forestry. This is because the land is dominated by deserts, mountain slopes and urban settlements. Chakwal is found on the Potohar plateau, which isn’t considered to be a good agricultural land. The crops are dependent upon the seasonal rain cycles rather than the canal irrigation system.


The majority of Groups Land Holdings is located in Potohar Plateau. Experts call this unusable land. The family has been investing in land development and buying for agricultural purposes in Chakwal over the last 50 years.
Chakwal, like all other areas, grows two crops each year. Because the crops are dependent on rain, they are different from other areas. Even though the yield per hectare is lower than that of Pakistan, it is still higher than the fertile land.




Since 1962 when we bought our first piece land for agriculture, wheat has been our main crop. It started out as a way to provide for the family’s needs. Now it is a business. Most of our land is used to grow wheat, which can then be used for commercial and personal purposes.

Chakwal is known for its peanuts. This is our second crop. This is a completely business venture. Our output is mainly sold locally.

The group has a large amount of orange farm land in Chakwal (the best area for citrus production) and Sargodha. We produce high-quality oranges for export. It is a winter crop.

Recent research by our research team and Chakwals irrigation division has shown that Chakwal’s terrain and weather are very suitable for Olive Farming. We have planted approximately 4000 olive trees in Chakwal with the assistance of the irrigation department and will be harvesting our first crop by 2014.

Chakwal Group entered Dairy Farming in order to meet the growing demand for milk in the country a few years back. We have been growing Corn and Rhodes grass regularly since then to supply the Dairy Farm with feed.

Crops of Chakwal

Small areas of land can also be used to grow Roses of all kinds, Potatoes, Chick Peas, and other vegetables, depending on the season. These products are mostly grown to provide for the daily needs of the household.

What type of pulses are grown in Pothowar?Top
This region is ideal for growing chickpeas, lentil, and Mash.
When is the best time to sow different pulses crops?Top
Lentil and chickpea are usually sow from 25 September to 15 Oct. The mash crop can be sown in the whole month of July.
From where can we get the seed for pulses?Top
The recommended varieties of chickpea and lentil are available for sowing at Barani Agricultural Research Institute in Chakwal.
What is the best variety of chickpeas, lentils and mash?Top
Below are the recommended varieties of pulses crops suitable for Pothowar Region:

Chickpea (desi).

  • Balkassar-2000
  • Wanhar-2000

Chickpea (kabuli).

  • Tamman


  • Chakwal Masoor


  • Mash-97,
  • Chakwal Mash
Crops of Chakwal

What’s the seed rate for different pulses?

The following recommendations are generally made for Pothowar:

  • Chickpeas: 25-30 kg/acre
  • Lentil: 08-10 kg/acre
  • Mash: 08-10 kg/acre
What fertilizer is required for chickpeas, lentils and mash crops in the Pothowar region?Top
The following table lists the requirements for fertilizer for different pulses:

  • Chickpeas: 1.5 bags DAP +0.5 bags Potassium Soulfate during seed bed preparation
  • Lentil: 1 bag DAP + 0.5 bags Potassium Sulfate during the preparation of the seed bed
  • Mash: 1 bag DAP + 0.5 bags Potassium Sulfate during the preparation of the seed bed
How can we improve the yields of pulses?Top
Here are some good guidelines to help you get better yields.

  • Sowing should always be done on time
  • Only recommend varieties should be sown
  • After sowing, wait 8-10 days before you do the thinning.
  • You can control weeds, bugs and other diseases quickly
  • Harvesting and threshing the right time
What weedicide can be used to control weeds in wheat crops?Top
Commonly used weedicides are Buctril M (for broad leaves) and Puma Supper for narrow leaves.
Are there any fruit plants that can be grown in the Pothowar region?Top
It is possible to grow many varieties of fruit plants, including olive, lemon, grapes and plum, as well as citrus, grapes, grapes, apple, plum, plum, loquat, almond, and other types, in this area. You should only plant the recommended varieties for this area.
Crops of Chakwal
When is the best time to plant fruit trees?Top
Peach and grapes, which are deciduous plants, can be planted between mid January and mid February. Evergreen plants such as citrus and olive can either be planted in spring (February/March), or in August/September. Two months before actual planting, the orchard must be laid out and pit digging must also be done.
Is it possible to get fruit plants from a nursery?Top
You should only purchase fruit plants from a government nursery. Unknown varieties should never be purchased. Barani Agricultural Research Institute Chakwal and Orange Research Institute Sargodha can provide true-to-type plants.
Are there other crops that can be grown in the fruit orchards?Top
In an orchard, deep-rooted crops shouldn’t be planted. Inter crop can be used for shallow-rooted crops such as radish, peas and masoor. During the flowering period, it is important to avoid irrigation.
What causes fruit splitting?Top
When the fruits reach maturity, the skin does not expand and the fruit are fully ripe, then the fruit will split. Trees can absorb water from heavy rains and force it into their fruits. The peel can’t expand and splits instead. Certain varieties also have the ability to split fruit.
Why is fertilizer important for crop growth?Top
It increases the soil’s nutrient status, and ultimately, the crop yield.
What’s balanced fertilization?Top
A combination of nutrients such as NPK and other micronutrients to meet crop requirements and increase yield.
Where is NPK obtained?Top
Urea for Nitrogen, DAP for Nitrogen, and Nitrophos (for Nitrogen and Phosphorus) and Potassium Sulphate for Potassium
What’s Soil fertility?Top
The strength of the soil, taking into account the nutrients, is called soil fertility.
Crops of Chakwal

Why is soil analysis important?

This helps you to understand fertilizer requirements and how it can be used economically for profitable and healthy crop production.
How do you store moisture in soil?Top
Deep ploughing, manuring, and gypsum applications can help retain soil moisture.
Why does a large number of flowers fall without setting fruit?Top
Different reasons can cause flower to drop

  • Flower drop is a common phenomenon. About 98% of the blossoms that fall are not fruitful. This is nature’s way to allow the tree produce only what it can sustain.
  • Blossoms can be blown away by strong winds, heavy rain, or hail.
  • Flower drop can be caused by drastic changes in watering and feeding habits. You should maintain a consistent watering schedule throughout the flowering and young fruit stages. Follow all instructions when applying food.
Sometimes the plants may bloom, but not produce fruit. Why?Top
One or more of the following reasons may cause flowers to drop before they reach fruit setting: late spring frost, low soil fertility, improper irrigation, and other factors.
Why are the young fruits falling from the tree?Top
Different reasons could be behind fruit dropping

  • It is a normal phenomenon for a tree to retain as much fruit as it can bear.
  • This is considered abnormal if it occurs after the fruit reaches a certain size. This could be caused by high humidity and/or high temperatures.
What moisture conservation methods are used in Barani?Top
Deep ploughing, Ramhart, and deep ploughing combined with FYM and compost application
When is the best time to fertilize in Barani?Top
Fertilizer can be applied during sowing.
What new crops are available in the Barani area?Top
New crops in Barani are Quinoa (Healy drought Resistance), and Camelina.
When is the best time to sow wheat in Barani?Top
Mid-October through mid-November
Are there any new varieties of wheat available for Barani regions?Top
Ahsan-2016 is a new variety
Which is the best way to sow crops in Barani?Top
Drill sowing is the best way to sow
When is the best time to sow gram in Barani?Top
The best time to sow gram in Barani is between mid-September and mid-October.
When is the best time to fertilize a crop in Barani?Top
The best time to fertilize any crop in Baran is at the time of sowing
What new varieties of groundnut are recommended?Top
BARI-2011 & BARI-2016
What are the potential yields and average yields of recommended varities?Top
Potential yield is 40 monds/acre, and average yield is 20 monds/acre
What’s the groundnut crop’s seed rate?Top
70kg pods and 40 kg groundnut grains are per acre.
What soil is best for groundnut cultivation?Top
Loamy and sandy sand soils
When is the best time to sow?Top
Last week march to May, depending on the availability of moisture.
What depth should I use for seed?Top
Seed depth: 5-7 cm; plant to plant distance 15-20cm; row to row distance 45cm
What are the recommended fertilizer dosages?Top
1/2 bag urea + 3.5 SSP + 1/2 bag potassium sulphate.
When should gypsum be applied?Top
Flowering stage is after 15 July 200kg/acre, or 25kg/kanal.
What are the remedies for hairy caterpillars?Top
Use the Pyrithride insecticide group.
What weedicides work best for groundnut?Top
Manual hoeing + chemical use with consultation from agri. Experts.
How should land be prepared for wheat sowing?Top
To conserve soil moisture, perform a deep ploughing at the onset monsoon. Two ploughings are done with plankings at the time of sowing to finely prepare the land.
When is the best time to sow rainfed wheat?Top
The best time to sow in Barani is between 25th October and 20th November.
Which is the best way to sow rainfed wheat?Top
Rabi Drill should be used for sowing. Keep row to row distance at 9 inches and maintain depth of 1.5 to 2-inches.
What is the optimum seed rate to grow rainfed wheat?Top
Barani areas should be seeded at 50Kg/acre. For Chakwal-50 and other high-tillering varieties, however, the seed rate rate can be reduced to 5 kg.
Which varieties of wheat are best for Punjab’s rainfed areas?Top
Ihsan-2016 and Fatehjang – 2016, Dharabi-11, Chakwal-50, and BARS-09
How can we save from Kernal Bunt and other seed-borne diseases?Top
Seed treatment is essential to prevent seed-borne diseases. Apply fungicide at a rate of 2g/kg.
What can be done to eliminate weeds in a wheat field?Top
The main crop is the primary crop. Weeds are in competition for nutrients, space and water. You could lose as much as 15% to 40%. Barani area is home to both chemical and non-chemical methods for eradicating weeds.
What is wheat disease and how can it be controlled?Top
Wheat Diseases and Their Control: The most common diseases in wheat are Yellow Rust, Leaf Rust, and Loose Smut in Barani. Below is more information:
Leaf Rust
Symptoms The symptoms of this infection are: The pustules can be circular or slightly elliptical and smaller than those caused by stem rust. They also contain large amounts of orange-brown to orange-brown Urediaspores. Primarily, infection sites can be found on the upper surfaces of leaves, leaf sheaths, as well as the neck and awns.
Development Primary infections are often light in nature and can be caused by wind-borne urediospores, which may have traveled long distances. When there is no moisture and temperatures near 20 degrees Celsius, the disease can quickly develop. If conditions are favorable, successive generations of urediospores may be produced every 10-14 day. If the environment is not ideal, plants may develop masses or black teliospores as they mature.
Distribution: Leaf Rust can affect wheat, triticale and many other related grasses. It can be found in any temperate cereals. Alternative hosts include Thalictrum and Isopryum as well as Anemonella and Anchusa.
Importance Severe, early infections can lead to significant yield losses. This is primarily due to a reduction in the number of kernels per spike and test weights as well as a decrease in kernel quality.
Stripe Rust (Yellow Rust)PucciniastriiformisWestend f. sp. tritici
Symptoms: Stripe rust pustules contain yellow to orange-yellow Urediospores. They form narrow stripes on leaves. You can also find pustules on the necks, glumes, and leaf sheaths.
Development Primary infections can be caused by wind-borne, urediospores. These may have traveled long distances. Free moisture (rain or snow) is a good option. Temperatures between 10-20 degrees Celsius are ideal. The production of urediospores decreases or stops at temperatures above 25°C. Black teliospores are also common.
Distribution: Stripe Rust can affect wheat, barley and triticale as well as many other grasses. It can be found in any highland or temperate area where cereals are grown. It was discovered on common barberry, as well as other Berberis species. In 2010, the USA. Although Berberis vulgaris, the alternate host (European barberry), was once a significant source of inoculum for North America and Europe in the past, it is now very rare due to barberry eradication laws. Some regions, especially in East Europe and West Asia where barberry is abundant, could facilitate continued cyclic-rust infection and the evolution of new combinations.
Importance Severe Infections can lead to yield losses. This is mainly due to a reduction in the number of kernels per spike and test weights as well as a decrease in kernel quality.
Loose Smut (Ustilagotritici (Pers.) Rostr. )
Symptoms All inflorescences, except the rachis are replaced by masses smutspores. These teliospores, which are black in color, are often carried away by wind and left behind only the rachis and remnants from other floral structures.
Development: Windblown teliospores can land on the flowers and infect the embryo of the wheat plant. The kernel’s embryonic tissues contain the mycelium from loose smut fungus, which remains dormant until it begins to germinate. The mycelium grows along with the plant’s growth point and replaces the flower parts of the spike at flowering with spores of large numbers. Cool, humid conditions are favorable for disease and infection development, as they prolong the flowering time of the host plants.
Distribution: This disease can be found anywhere wheat is grown.
Importance Yield Loss: Yields depend on how many spikes are affected by the disease. In most cases, the incidence is less than 1% and rarely exceeds 30% in any one location.
Control The best way to prevent rust diseases resistant varieties from developing is to use . Seed treatment with a suitable fungicide is the best way to prevent loose smut.


Author Since: June 2, 2022

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